Client: County of Hawai'i
ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RECOVERY INVESTIGATIONS AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE ANE KEOHOKĀLOLE HIGHWAY, NORTH KONA, HAWAI`I ISLAND
To assist the County of Hawai‘i and the Federal Highway Administration in complying with their Section 106 obligations, Pacific Legacy conducted data recovery excavations at archaeological sites located within the southern end of the proposed Ane Keohokālole Highway corridor on the island of Hawai‘i. Previous surveys undertaken by Pacific Legacy had revealed an archaeological landscape of scattered habitation features interspersed among informal agricultural fields. Excavations were carried out at both habitation and agricultural structures. Sizeable areal excavations were conducted at the major habitation features in order to determine as much as possible about their chronology and use. These excavations revealed that the area’s residential sites had developed over time from temporary encampments to more permanent stone surface structures which apparently served as the foundations of pole and thatch dwellings. Radiocarbon dates obtained during the excavations indicate that occupation of the area may have begun as early as the mid 17th century. The relative lack of historic artifacts suggests that the project area was abandoned sometime in the early 19th century. Samples taken from trenches dug into open soil areas that might represent former cultivated fields yielded both pollen and starch from the ‘uala (sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas), suggesting that sweet potato may have been the primary crop grown. There were also indications of the possible presence of dry land kalo (taro, Colocasia esculenta). The excavations undertaken along the Ane Keohokālole Highway corridor have opened a window onto the life of North Kona as it existed near the end of the pre-Contact period.
Clients: Shell Wind Energy, Sempra Generation
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVENTORY SURVEY FOR THE AUWAHI WIND FARM, ISLAND OF MAUI
In 2010, a two phase archaeological inventory survey was completed at the Auwahi Wind Farm located on ‘Ulupalakua Ranch Lands on the Island of Maui. The Auwahi Wind Farm project consists of several components: a 283 acre wind farm; a 5 mile long construction access road, and 9 miles of transmission line terminating at a proposed new interconnect substation. In 2007, the 1,450 acre wind farm parcel, transmission line, and access road routes underwent a 100 percent pedestrian survey. Using data provided by this survey engineers designed wind farm facilities to avoid as many of the archaeological resources as possible and especially avoiding those that were thought to be most sensitive (i.e., ceremonial/religious structures and possible human burials). In 2010, a detailed recording and testing phase was conducted on those archaeological resources that were within the area of potential effect (APE). A total of 237 archaeological sites composed of over 1,686 features were recorded in detail, with their locations accurately recorded using GPS technology. Test excavations were conducted in 37 features with the goal of obtaining dateable material to establish chronological parameters for the archaeological resources in the area. The design of wind farm components, such as roads and pad locations was changed partially to avoid sites containing human or ceremonial sites or that were thought to contain human burials. Every effort has been made to avoid these sensitive sites. The results of the archaeological inventory survey at Auwahi have added significantly to our knowledge about the prehistory of the moku of Kahikinui. The pattern of settlement in this area has been well documented; innovative traditional Hawaiian agricultural techniques have been discovered and described; and numerous radiocarbon dates have added to our understanding of settlement in leeward Maui. The significance of the archaeological resources at Auwahi has been assessed and recommendations have been made to mitigate the adverse effects of the planned wind farm development.
Clients: Wil Chee – Planning, U.S. Marine Corps
PREPARATION OF AN INTEGRATED CULTURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE MARINE CORPS BASE HAWAII
Working with Wil Chee – Planning to develop an integrated cultural resources management plan (ICRMP) for MCBH at Waikane, Kaneohe Bay, Bellows, Camp Smith, Puuloa, and Manana, Oahu. The purpose of the ICRMP is to provide a framework and mechanisms to protect the cultural resources on each of these installations. The ICRMP is being developed by inventorying all previously recorded cultural resources at each installation and determining what the needs the various user groups at each installation. In this way Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) can be developed allowing for the most flexibility for the user groups while still protecting the cultural resources. As part of developing the ICRMP, the historic properties on each installation were evaluated for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and NRHP forms were prepared for submission to the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places. Completed forms were submitted to MCBH.