Pacific Legacy

Projects by Industry Image

Natural Resources Management

Natural Resources ManagementDrilling, damming, draining, dumping, leveling, landing, growing and grazing are human activities associated with the extraction and use of natural resources. Pacific Legacy has completed a wide range of natural resources management projects including mining, timber harvest, rangeland use, and water and fire control. Our clients include the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Corps of Engineers, the National Park Service, city and county governments, and private industry.


Mining projects often involve unique historical statutory limitations. For example the 1872 Mining Act, which limits the ability of federal agencies to restrict mining exploration activities. Yet heritage values often conflict with mining interests, creating complex and contentious regulatory issues. Through our experience with mining projects in the western United States, such as the Northumberland Mine Land Exchange Project in Nevada and the Sulphur Bank Mining Project in California, Pacific Legacy has found that these conflicts can usually be avoided through early inventory and active consultation efforts.

Timber HarvestTimber Harvest

The recent increased emphasis on the reduction and treatment of fuels on forested land is prompting renewed attention to timber harvest as a means of both supplying the nation with wood products and reducing the risk of devastating wildland fires. Pacific Legacy staff are leaders in the development of protective avoidance measures when timber harvests take place on or near archaeological and historic sites. Working with the U.S.D.A. Forest Service and the timber industry, we have conducted controlled experiments on the impacts of archaeological sites of various logging and yarding methods, resulting in standard treatment measures that allow the safe extraction of timber while protecting important cultural resources.

Rangeland ManagementRangeland Management

Rangeland management requires a variety of facilities to manage grazing animals including stock pens and corrals, watering and feeding stations, fencelines, drivelines, roads and trails. Grazing on federal lands did not become a historical preservation issue until the late 1990s when more than 4,000 long-term grazing permits were scheduled to expire. The USDA Forest Service was unprepared to meet NEPA and Section 106 review requirements for so many permit renewals at once, and the situation was seen as a national management crisis. The Washington Office of the Forest Service retained Pacific Legacy staff to prepare a nationwide Programmatic Agreement for issuing new grazing permits that would provide a formal and consistent statement of Forest Service policy; an alternative to standard Section 106 review; guidance for integrating heritage preservation mandates with other environmental mandates; and a process under which permitting variations could be implemented. The nationwide PA was completed and executed by the Forest Service in 1996.

Water Development and ManagementWater Development and Management

Pacific Legacy has a long history of experience with water management projects related to hydroelectric development, water storage and transport, irrigation, treatment, and flood control. We understand the large scale challenges inherent in these projects and have developed successful approaches to the protection of cultural resources threatened by construction, inundation, erosion, recreational impacts and increased susceptibility to vandalism. We have the experience to successfully integrate historical preservation requirements for Section 404 of the Clean Water Act with NEPA, CEQA and other regulations. Some of our water management projects include South Lake, Waugh Lake, New Melones Reservoir, Lake Britton, Bass Lake, Lake Cahuilla, Pardee Reservoir, New Los Padres Dam and Reservoir, Lake Cachuma, Pajaro Import and Distribution Pipelines, Delta Wetlands Water Storage, Coastal Branch Aqueduct, Santa Rosa Recharge Project, Plymouth Reservoir, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Levee Rehabilitation Project.

Fire ManagementFire Management

Pacific Legacy is the cultural resources management leader in the field of fire management, fire suppression, fuels management, and Burned Area Rehabilitation. Many of our staff members have served as technical specialists on incident command teams during wildland fire suppression. We have more than a decade of experience in California and the Great Basin conducting surveys in advance of fuels treatment projects, as well as post-fire inventory and damage assessments; two such assessments included the McNally Post-Fire Inventory and the Cannon Post-Fire Inventory. In 1995, the USDA Forest Service contracted with Pacific Legacy to develop procedures for the consideration of cultural resources during prescribed fire projects. The procedures were adopted by five Forests of the Sierra Nevada and captured national attention. In 1999 the National Park Service asked Pacific Legacy to develop a nationwide Programmatic Agreement and accompanying procedures for all agencies of the departments of Agriculture and Interior. Pacific Legacy’s principal investigator, Robert Jackson, has served as the lead instructor since 1999 for the National Park Service’s class, Cultural Resources Protection and Fire Planning, taught annually to Park Service, Forest Service, and BLM staff. In 2002 he received the National Park Service’s prestigious Crystal Owl Award for Training and Development Excellence (Outstanding Individual Effort).